As Black Hat 2019 quickly approaches, I couldn’t help but think back to the tail-end of my previous life attending industry conferences as an analyst covering network security. By 2014, you couldn’t get a conversation with a user on the show floor if you were a firewall vendor that didn’t offer robust application control. Palo Alto Networks had successfully shifted the industry focus to application layer inspection and next-generation firewalls had all but been accepted as the default standard for network protection. This transition addressed the fundamental shift in internet usage affecting the way we live and work. Traditional Layer 3 and 4 scanning could not provide the visibility and control over Layer 7 traffic required to protect the modern enterprise. Of course, at the time it was the need for control over applications like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube driving the change. But it clearly foreshadowed the upcoming transition to cloud application usage.